operating system

operating system 

operating system

operating system 

operating system  (os) is system software that manages hardware and software resources of the computer and makes it ready to use. It is a collection of programs that control the overall operating of the computer. It acts as the interface between user and hardware, for example, windows, MS DoS, Linux, Android.
Different types of operating system 

Different types of the operating system are:

on the basis of mode of user 

1. single-user operating system: This type of OS support only a single user at a time. It is also a single program OS. Example: MS-DOS, PC-DOS.
2. Multi-user operating system: It supports multiple users at the same time. It uses the time-sharing concept. It shares resources to all the users. Example: Windows, UNIX, LINUX.

on the basis of user interface 

1. GUI based operating system: GUI (graphical user interface)  based operatimg system contains graphics, color, icon, picture. It is attractive and user-friendly .it is easier to use. User doesn't require remembering and understanding the commands. it supports pointing device like mouse, joystick and light pen. It has a larger memory and processing requirement.it supports multitasking, multiprogramming, multiprocessing, multi-user, it supports multimedia multitasking, multiprogramming, multiprocessing, multi-user, it supports multimedia. Example Windows, Mac OS, Android.

2. CUI based OS: CUI (character/command user interface) based OS contains only the text with no graphics. It is difficult and not attractive for beginners. User needs to understand and remember the command. It doesn't support a pointing device like a mouse, it has low memory and processing requirement. It doesn't support multimedia. Example: MS-DOS,UNIX,LINUX.

on the basis of processing

1. single program operating system: a single program OS supports only one program at a time. It is also a single user operatimg system . Example: MS-DOS, PC-DOS.

2. Multitasking operating system: This type of operatimg system is capable of supporting multiple tasks at a time. for executing multiple tasks, it uses the time-sharing concept. It increases the productivity of the users for the use of computers, as the user can perform multiple tasks simultaneously.Example: Windows,LINUX,MAC operatimg system .

3. Multiprogramming operating system: Multiprogramming operatimg system supports multiple programs at the same time. These multiple programs can be executed by a single processor using time-sharing a concept or by multiple CPU Multiprogramming operating system  IS Usually a multi-user OS. The main purpose of Multiprogramming operatimg system is to increase the utilization of computer and its resources. Different forms of Multiprogramming operating system are multitasking, multiprocessing, and multi-user.

4. Multiprocessing operating system: it supports the execution of multiple processes at the same time. To execute multiple processes, multiple processors (CPU) are required. it is also as parallel processing, in which multiple processors work in parallel to execute multiple tasks simultaneously. It is more costly and complex, It increases the program speed of the computer. Example: UNIX, VMS.

5. Multithreading operating system: A program I execution is called a process. a process can be divided into multiple sub-process, called as thread. A multithreading operatimg system can be divide process into thread and execute those threads. This increases the processing speed but also increases the processing speed and complexity.Examples : UNIX,LINUX,WINDOWS Server 2003.

6. Batch processing: It is the group processing system. It is also called as offline processing. In batch processing, the processing is done only after all the required inputs are provided. The output is provided to the user only after processing of all the input is over.CPU idle time is low as input for processing are ready in the memory. It is not appropriate for interactive and real-time application.

7. online processing: In on-line processing, the processing is done as soon as the input is provided. Minimum changes in processing time are acceptable. ON-line processing system is usually a general-purpose in nature. It is used for applications like documents editing, using the internet, playing audio/video, normal computing operations.

8. Real-time processing: Real-time processing is an online processing system in which processing time is critical.processing has to be completed in a defined time. Changes in processing time are not acceptable. It takes more resources and cost to develop a real-time system. It is used for applications like automated industry/vehicle controlling, rocket controlling satellite.

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