generation of computer - FACT WORLD

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Friday, August 16, 2019

generation of computer

generation of computer

generation-of-computer

generation-of-computer is the division of electronic computers based on the technology used by the computer.it is division based on processing components and memory devices used in the computers.

A different generation of computer :


⦁ The first generation of computers
⦁ The second generation of computers
⦁ The third generation of computers
⦁ The fourth generation of computers
⦁ The fifth generation of computers

The first generation of computers 

The first generation of computers was used during 1945-1956 A.D.These First generation of computer-operated on the principle of thermionic emission. The generation of computers was very large in size called mainframe. The features of the First generation of computers are enlisted below:
The technology used: vacuum tube
operating speed: millisecond range
programming language: machine language
Memory used:
⦁    primary memory: magnetic core memory
secondary memory: the punched card, magnetic drum, magnetic tape
use: simple mathematical calculation
input/output device: punched card as input and printed output
Example: ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC

The second generation of computers

The second generation of computers was used in between 1956-1964 A.D. The Second generation of computers of electronic computers began with the development of transistors. The size of the computers was decreased as vacuum tubes were replaced with transistors. The features of the Second generation of computers are enlisted below :
The technology used: transistor
Operating speed: microsecond range
Programming language: assembly language
Memory used:
primary memory: Magnetic core memory
Secondary memory: magnetic drum, magnetic tape
Use: calculation including simple and complex scientific calculation.
input/output devices: punched card is used as input and printed output operation.
Example: Leo Mark III, IBM 1620, IBM 7024.

The third generation of computers

Development of integrated circuits signaled the beginning of the third-generation, The Third generation of computers was used in between 1964-1971 A.D. As scientists managed to fit many components on a single chip, the computer became even smaller. the features of the third generation of computers are enlisted below :
Technology used: IC (Integrated circuit)
Operating speed: Nanosecond range
Programming language: HLL (High-level language)
Memory used:
Primary memory: semiconductor memory like RAM and ROM
secondary memory: Magnetic tape, magnetic disk like floppy disk, hard disk.
USE: calculation, record keeping in the bank, the insurance company, managing population census.
input/output device: Keyboard as input and monitor as output devices were introduced.
Example: IBM 360 series, ICL 900 series, Honeywell 200 series.

The fourth generation of computers

The invention of a microprocessor chip marked the beginning of the Fourth generation of computers. The fourth generation of computers is being used in 1971 onwards. The Fourth generation of computers has faster accessing and processing speed and increased memory capacity. The features of the Fourth generation of computers are enlisted below :
Technology is used: Microprocessor or VLSI or VVLSI.
Operating speed: picosecond range.
Memory in use :
primary memory: semiconductor memory like RAM, ROM and Cache memory.
secondary memory: Magnetic disk-like hard disk. Optical memory like CD, DVD. flash memory like pen drive, memory card.
USE: computers are used for record-keeping, calculation, entertainment, communication, controlling, health sector, scientific, and engineering.
input/output device: FLEXIBLE DEVICES LIKE MOUSE, TOUCH SCREEN, LCD, LED is developed.
Example: IBM desktop pc, Dell notebook, HP laptop, IPAD.

The fifth generation of computers

Scientists are working on the development of the Fifth generation of computers. it is based on artificial intelligence. it is believed that the fifth generation of computers will be with genuine IQ. The computers will be able to reason logically and can respond to their surroundings with the use of different types of sensors. The features of the Fifth generation of computers are enlisted below :
Technology to be used: biochip
Operating speed: Femtosecond range/KLPS (kilo logical inference per second )
programming language: Natural language
Memory to be used: Superconductor memory will be used.
use: computers will be used in the area, which will require a high level of intelligence and expertise.
⦁ computers will have AL ( Artifical intelligence)

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